Electromagnetic coil design pdf

Electromagnetic coil is also known by the name inductor and is one of the simplest electric components. It consists of two distinct elements, a conductor and a core. The conductor is usually made from copper wire and is wrapped around the core. One cycle around the core is called a turn.

The role of the coil is to provide inductance to an electric circuit. Inductance is an electrical property characteristic to electromagnetic coils opposing the flow of current through the circuit. The inductor harnesses energy by passing the electric current through its body.

Electromagnetic coils need to have terminals connected to the wire to function in a circuit. Terminals are also known as taps. They are usually coated in varnish or wrapped in a form of insulation tape. In order to understand how the inductors work, we can have an imaginary example of electrical circuit, with incandescent light bulb connected in parallel to an inductor and the current is going through a switch. When the switch is turned on, in theory the coil will act as a short circuit and that way prevent the light bulb from emitting light, because the coil has lower electrical resistance.

In reality the light bulb will be bright at the beginning and start to dim to a lower light intensity.

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The same effect is shown when the switch is turned off. This happens because of inductance. When current is fed through the coil it will generate a magnetic field that generates another current in opposite direction, which will try to stop the current from going through the coil.

Albeit, when the magnetic field is established, the current flow goes back to normal. In another perspective, if the current flow is stopped, the magnetic field generate electric current through the coil in order to maintain it. The light bulb will be lit for just a small amount of time.

electromagnetic coil design pdf

If we take a piece of straight wire and attach it to a battery, the current will flow through it and generate a magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field generated can be calculated when you know amount of current and the length of the wire.

We can pretend that we have a straight solenoid Picture 3. When the wire is wrapped around the core, the direction of field lines is reshaped and kind of concentrated into a smaller size.

So every turn will increase the magnetic force by 5cm worth of the straight wire. If you add more layers in top of the first one and it will increase the strength of the magnetic field even more.

In technical terms this is increasing of strength is called the magnetic flux density.An electromagnetic coil is an electrical conductor such as a wire in the shape of a coilspiral or helix.

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Either an electric current is passed through the wire of the coil to generate a magnetic field, or conversely an external time-varying magnetic field through the interior of the coil generates an EMF voltage in the conductor.

A current through any conductor creates a circular magnetic field around the conductor due to Ampere's law.

electromagnetic coil design pdf

The magnetic fields generated by the separate turns of wire all pass through the center of the coil and add superpose to produce a strong field there. Conversely, a changing external magnetic flux induces a voltage in a conductor such as a wire, due to Faraday's law of induction. The direction of the magnetic field produced by a coil can be determined by the right hand grip rule. If the fingers of the right hand are wrapped around the magnetic core of a coil in the direction of conventional current through the wire, the thumb will point in the direction the magnetic field lines pass through the coil.

The end of a magnetic core from which the field lines emerge is defined to be the North pole. The wire or conductor which constitutes the coil is called the winding. The winding is often wrapped around a coil form made of plastic or other material to hold it in place. Windings may have additional electrical connections along their length; these are called taps. Coils can have more than one winding, insulated electrically from each other. When there are two or more windings around a common magnetic axis, the windings are said to be inductively coupled or magnetically coupled.

This is called a transformer. The other windings are called secondary windings. Many electromagnetic coils have a magnetic corea piece of ferromagnetic material like iron in the center to increase the magnetic field. This is called a ferromagnetic-core or iron-core coil.

A ferrite core coil is a variety of coil with a core made of ferritea ferrimagnetic ceramic compound. A coil without a ferromagnetic core is called an air-core coil. Coils can be classified by the frequency of the current they are designed to operate with:.

Electromagnets are coils that generate a magnetic field for some external use, often to exert a mechanical force on something. Inductors or reactors are coils which generate a magnetic field which interacts with the coil itself, to induce a back EMF which opposes changes in current through the coil.

Inductors are used as circuit elements in electrical circuits, to temporarily store energy or resist changes in current.

electromagnetic coil design pdf

A few types:. A transformer is a device with two or more magnetically coupled windings or sections of a single winding. A time varying current in one coil called the primary winding generates a magnetic field which induces a voltage in the other coil called the secondary winding.

Electric machines such as motors and generators have one or more windings which interact with moving magnetic fields to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy.

Often a machine will have one winding through which passes most of the power of the machine the "armature"and a second winding which provides the magnetic field of the rotating element the "field winding" which may be connected by brushes or slip rings to an external source of electric current.The Terrain protocol prepares the terrain in your body to be more available or receptive to further frequency treatments.

This protocol was developed by Johann Stegmann for the Spooky2 Rife system, based on his experience of treating people using Spooky with their chronic diseases. He found that people responded better to frequency treatments when common toxins and parasites eliminated beforehand.

The programs and frequencies specified by Johann are included in the diypemf Terrain Protocol. When running the Terrain protocol, make sure you keep yourself well hydrated to aid the elimination of toxins from your body. Inside each of the archives is Terrain Protocol. For example, if you had a frequency set with 20 frequencies, each running for 3 minutes, it would take 60 minutes to treat yourself with these frequency.

The new Merge Frequencies option will digitally mix all the frequencies together in a one 3 minute set. The main advantage to mixing the frequencies it you reduce the file size of a frequency set, as now you only have a 3 minute audio. When you treat yourself, you will still want to run the frequencies for a period of time, say like a few hours or overnight, to get the full benefits of the frequencies.

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Previously, these tools created audio files with the maximum sample rate of 48 KHz. Also, these tools used 20 samples per cycle as the minimum allowed sample count per cycle. While this is still the case for the Sine and Lilly wave, the Triangle wave has 8 samples per cycles minimum, the Pulse, Sawtooth, and Reverse Sawtooth have 4 samples per cycle minimum, and the Square wave has 2 samples per cycle minimum. While this is a great improvement over the old Hz limit, your MP3 player may have a poor frequency response over 20 KHz, meaning you may not get a signal for frequencies over the supported maximum frequency of your MP3 player.

David Wilcock said that for a Schumann resonance generator to be effective, it needed both the 7. Here is a graph of the waveform I created that has both a sine wave 7.

Barry's Coilgun Design Site

If you would like to create your own frequency files with 2 different signals inside, like the audio files above, here is how you do it. Then I created a second long Sine wave 0. I then imported each of these audio files into 2 different tracks on Audacity.

Alternatively, to mix the two separate signal you could use sox command line tool with the following command:. I would like to expand on those techniques and to put the testing procedures in a single place. If you have a gauss meter, like the Gauss Master or the TriField meterdownload the following zip file and place the appropriate audio file onto your music player:.

This audio files contain a one minute long 60 Hz square wave that can be detected by most gauss meters. If you use some of the other frequencies downloaded from this website, the frequency may be too low to be detected by the meter.

Play the Gauss Meter Test file, set your player volume to full, and then using your gauss meter to check the coils. Given that a working set of coils ought to have between — milligauss strength, your meter can easily determine whether your coils are working or not.

If you have a multimeter, you can test the integrity of the coil. The resistance ought be be somewhere around 2 ohms. If the resistance is zero ohm, you have a short in your coils, and the coils are bad. If the resistance is infinity, you have a break in your coils, and the coils are bad. If you have a compass, you can also test your coils. Start by downloading the following zip file and place the appropriate audio file onto your music player:.

Hold one of the coils perpendicular to the compass near the compass needle. The compass needle ought to deflect a little. A question came in from a reader about how to make a sleep program.

It will then stay in a light sleep Theta wave state for a half hour. It then moves you from a light sleep Theta wave state down to a deep sleep Delta wave state in 15 minutes.Read the slides for Magnetic Launches - Hands-on Ideas 10my presentation about coilguns on May 22, As of this website supports SSL.

Let me know if you spot anything broken or just plain strange. Current projects : Click here to see my latest coilgun, my best coilgun or my levitator. What is a coilgun or gauss gun? It accelerates a piece of iron or steel down a tube. The tube runs through a series of electromagnetic coils like solenoids.

There are no sparks or noise or impressive side effects or parts to wear out. Some careful timing circuits energize each coil in sequence. The principle of magnetic attraction draws the projectile along at rapidly increasing speed.

Why build a coilgun? It demonstrates many basic concepts of magnetic machines. A coilgun is foremost an example of a solenoid. These appear practically everywhere, from car door locks to doorbells, from diskette drive ejectors to fuel injectors. The only difference is that most solenoids limit the range of travel, and usually have a spring return. A coilgun is scalable to very large applications, possibly as large as a mass driver to put payloads into orbit.

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It's a keen space-age toy. It has no moving parts -- there's the magic of invisible forces at work.

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It requires no special construction techniques or unusual tools. Winding coils is fun and relaxing at least for the first few! Even small coils are remarkably powerful.

Electromagnet Design

You can also learn about magnetic levitation here. These pages include complete design details for several maglev demonstrators which levitate small iron parts. Read all about it and see levitation pictures. May 22, - Added the Overview page for a quick introduction to how it started, what happened and where it's going. Check out the notes on each slide; very entertaining. About This Site Topics: About. This website is my engineering notebook. This is a quick way to see how and why it started, what happened, and where it's going.

Download my presentation here.A DC electromagnet is simply a coil of wire connected to a DC voltage source. It can have an air core or an iron core. The construction would be the same as the AC electromagnet. The difference would be that instead of connecting it directly to the output of a variac, connect the output of the variac to a diode bridge shown in the photoand connect the coil to the DC output terminals of the diode bridge.

To smooth out the DC output, a capacitor can be connected in parallel with the coil. It can be shown how the DC electromagnet will pick up several paper clips. Next, turn the variac down to zero, to show how most of the paper clips fall off the end of the bolt.

There may be a couple that hang on. It behaves like a permanent magnet as long as there is power applied to it. It's a magnet that can be turned on and off, and its magnetic strength can be varied as the voltage to it is varied. In fact, for the same voltage out of the variac, there will be more current flowing in the DC electromagnet than the AC electromagnet no inductive reactance in the circuitso it will be a stronger magnet!

The polarity of the magnetic pole at the end of the bolt does not change like the AC electromagnet does. It will be either a North or a South magnetic pole, depending on how it is connected to the output of the diode bridge.

For a simulated diagram of the field around this electromagnet without an iron core, look here. For a simulated diagram of the field around this electromagnet with an iron core, look here. An Easy Electromagnet Experiment. The steel bolt can be obtained from most hardware stores. The sandpaper can be picked up there, too.

Barry's Coilgun Design Site

Computer power supplies, like those used for tower computers, are usually rated between W to W. We will want to use the 5V supply since that works much better than a battery.

I got one for free that way.Hot Threads. Featured Threads. Log in Register. Search titles only. Search Advanced search…. Log in. Forums Engineering Electrical Engineering. JavaScript is disabled. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. Electromagnet Design. I am trying to design a very powerful electromagnet for experimental reasons.

However, I am wondering at his absurd sounding conclusion I arrived at! But to increase n, I need longer wire, hence more R resistance ; so less than 3A current may flow if I wound more wires to increase n.

However, I can always reestablish 3A current by simply increasing the wire diameter. Thus it seems to me that I can attain B as high as I desire, by simply winding more wire and increasing the wire diameter, and my electromagnet will never consume more than 72 watts.

My intuition tells me this must not be possible, but I don't see why? Last edited: Aug 2, Related Electrical Engineering News on Phys. Hi there, From what I remember, n represents the number of time you wind the wire per unit lenght. And, it seems to me to be logical that you will have a hard time building a very intense electromagnet with a 72W power output. How intense do you want you magnetic field??? I believe the solution to your question stands in the maximum power output.

Your wire will definetely get longer, and the resistance will increase. Therefore, you will need more power to increase the current output. SirAskalot said:. Hi there, Well one solution would be to cool down the electrical circuit.

That way you would be playing on the resistivity of the wire, therefore decreasing its resistance. You just store it in a magnetic field. Until you use your coil to lift something, then the magnetic field changes due to the "re-action" field of the ferromagnetic substance. Then your 70W might not be enough. Increasing the turns changes the self-inductance Land you can store more energy.

Tough there are a time aspect involved, B needs time to build up. As far as im concerned, the only limitations are the practical. And you aint got any MRI machine using your setup. Bob S. I have attached a thumbnail with the important equations for designing an electromagnet solenoid with second figure and without first figure an air gap. The air gap can be either inside or outside the coil, as long as the geometry of the iron ferrite is unchanged.

Note that for the elecromagnet solenoid with an air gap, as the air gap gets shorter, the magnetic field field gets higher.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up.

Rupa Dasgupta. Alternative flat coil design for electromagnetic forming using FEM. Alternative flat coil design for electromagnetic forming using FEM M. JHA1, A. AHMED3 1. Coil is an important component of EMF system which needs to be designed depending on application. Flat spiral coils are generally used for electromagnetic forming of sheet metals.

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However, with this type of coil the central portion of the workpiece experiences marginal magnetic force. This leads to in-sufficient deformation at this portion and other problems like air entrapment. In this study, a conceptual design of flat coil was proposed for better distribution of magnetic forces over the workpiece.

Comparative analysis of distribution of magnetic force, magnetic field and current density using the proposed and the existing coil designs were carried out using FEM.

The result indicates that the proposed coil design produces comparatively better magnetic force distribution over the workpiece.

Calculation of self-inductance of such coils was also carried out and was compared with FE simulation. Key words: electromagnetic forming; flat spiral coil; sheet metal forming; FEM central portion of workpiece. PIERRE et al[6] reflected 1 Introduction the same stating that there is significant low pressure at the centre due to coil design that leads to less bulging at Electromagnetic forming EMF is a high velocity the centre Fig.

If die is used, it leads to entrapment of forming process, which utilizes pulsed magnetic force to more air between the die and the workpiece due to short deform metallic workpiece. Some of the major process time, i. This entrapped air additionally advantages of this process are reduction in wrinkling and prevents the central portion from deforming into desired spring back[1], improved formability[2], rapid and high shape and sometimes leads to problem in tooling and die precision forming.

Automobile, aerospace, nuclear, air design. The technique was are limited as only few researchers have reported their used to join similar and dissimilar metals as well as to work, and a coil that generates pressure at the central deform flat or tubular metallic material especially light region is not available until now.

KAMAL[5] highlighted weight like aluminum, magnesium, etc. BELYY et al[4] used the to generate uniform pressure on the workpiece. He application-based approach to distinguish coils. They argued that the spatial distribution of forming pressure in classified coils according to their function such as electromagnetic forming was controlled by the compression coil to compress the tubular component, configuration of the coil.

In the failures mode and its remedies. Field shaper is another case of free form bulging of sheet metal using flat spiral tool that is used to modify the electromagnetic field to coil, a desired magnetic force is not generated in the have desired distribution of the magnetic field and central portion of the workpiece[5]. This is because of magnetic pressure. YU et al[8] studied the effect of field either absence or very less induced eddy current in the shaper on magnetic pressure on tubular workpiece and Corresponding author: M.

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Nonferrous Met. It can be seen that its radial pitch as well as cross section keeps constant i. In the proposed conceptual flat coil, the pitch and cross sectional area of turns increase from centre to outer turn along a radial axis as shown in Fig. The gap G values between workpiece and coil, span and cross sectional area of coil in both the cases keep constant. In the present study, a conceptual alternative flat coil design is proposed to modify electromagnetic field so that higher force point can be shifted towards the centre of the workpiece.

It is envisaged to improve free- form deformation of sheet around its central portion as well as reduce air entrapment between the workpiece and the die if used. FE analysis is performed to compare the proposed conceptual coil design with the existing one i. This study also deals with calculation of self-inductance of such coil, as no direct model is Fig.

A mathematical model proposed by GROVER[9] is used with some assumption for 3 Finite element simulation inductance calculation of the proposed alternative flat coil and compared with FEA.